Actually the example of recharge-able batteries for consumer electronics is a great one. The cells may actually be standardized in some cases (laptop cells basically), but the packs are not standardized because it benefits the manufacturer NOT to standardize it (it locks you into buying replacement packs from them and it allows them to customize the voltage and current capacity of the pack without needing the customer to deal with multiple separate standard cells).
Disposable batteries on the other hand are standardized because most manufacturers can't possibly produce and distribute a proprietary format widely enough to satisfy consumer demand.
At this point there's no benefit to standardizing battery packs (across manufacturers) because we have not settled on a specific chemistry yet and every manufacturer wants to get exclusive access to the best battery (it's a huge competitive advantage). When EVs become entirely common, we may see standardization (like the examples mgemmell gives out). However, at that point I expect the charging infrastructure to be so well established and battery tech to be mature enough that there is no need for battery swapping.
Side point: I think the engine sharing example is not an example of standardization, that's just parts sharing. You are merely using the same part (or a modified version). The size and specifications are not standardized such that you can buy a different part from a different manufacturer that meets those specs and is a drop in replacement.